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If you are using the iCub and or one of its components (hardware or software library) we warmly recommend you cite the following corresponding papers.


The iCub Platform and software middleware

  • This paper describes the iCub platform:

Metta, G., Natale, L., Nori, F., Sandini, G., Vernon, D., Fadiga, L., von Hofsten C., Santos-Victor, J., Bernardino, A. and Montesano, L., The iCub Humanoid Robot: An Open-Systems Platform for Research in Cognitive Development, Neural Networks, Volume 23, pp. 1125-1134, 2010.

  • This paper describes the iCub software architecture and the YARP-ROS compatibility protocols:

Natale, L., Paikan, A., Randazzo, M., Domenichelli, D.E.,The iCub Software Architecture: Evolution and Lessons Learned, Frontiers in Robotics and AI, vol. 3, no.24, 2016, doi: 10.3389/frobt.2016.00024

  • This paper describes the YARP middelware:

Fitzpatrick, P., Metta, G., and Natale, L., Towards Long-Lived Robot Genes, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp. 29-45, Elsevier 2008.

  • This paper describes the iCub simulator:

Tikhanoff V., Cangelosi A., Fitzpatrick P., Metta G., Natale L., and Nori F., “An open-source simulator for cognitive robotics research: The prototype of the iCub humanoid robot simulator,” in Proc. IEEE Work- shop Perform. Metrics Intell. Syst., Washington, DC, 2008.

  • The new Gazebo simulators:

Mingo, H. E., Traversaro, S., Alessio, R., Mirko, F., Settimi, A., Romano, F., Natale, L., Bicchi, A., Nori, F., and Tsagarakis, G., Nikos, A YARP based plugin for Gazebo Simulator, in Proc. 2014 Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems, Rome, Italy, 2014

Skin System

  • The latest skin system that uses fabric dielectric has been described here:

Maiolino, P., Maggiali, M., Cannata, G., Metta, G., Natale, L., A Flexible and Robust Large Scale Capacitive Tactile System for Robots, IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3910-3917, 2013.

  • This paper describes the latest version of the fingertips:

Jamali, N., Maggiali, M., Giovannini, F., Metta, G., and Natale, L., A New Design of a Fingertip for the iCub Hand, in Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Hamburg, Germany, 2015, pp. 1799-1805

  • This paper deals with the double- (or self-) touch:

Roncone A., Hoffmann M., Pattacini U., Metta G., Automatic kinematic chain calibration using artificial skin: self-touch in the iCub humanoid robot, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA2014), IEEE pp.2305-2312, Hong Kong, China, May 31-June 7, 2014.

Dynamics and Kinematics

Active compliance, joint torque sensing and external forces

Fumagalli, M., Ivaldi, S., Randazzo, M., Natale, L., Metta, G., Sandini, G., Nori, F., Force feedback exploiting tactile and proximal force/torque sensing, Autonomous Robots, Volume 33, pp. 381-398, Springer 2012.

Inverse Dynamics, whole-body torque control

Nori, F., Traversaro, S., Eljiak J., Romano, F., Del Prete, A., Pucci, D., iCub Whole-Body Control through Force Regulation on Rigid Non-Coplanar Contacts. Frontiers in Robotics and AI. Volume 2, 2015.

Whole-body related software

Francesco Romano, Silvio Traversaro, Daniele Pucci, Jorhabib Eljaik, Andrea Del Prete and Francesco Nori. A Whole-Body Software Abstraction layer for Control Design of free-floating Mechanical Systems. IEEE Robotic Computing 2017.

iKin: inverse kinematics, Cartesian control and movement planning

  • This paper describes the Cartesian controller:

Pattacini, U., Nori, F., Natale, L., Metta, G. and Sandini, G., An experimental evaluation of a novel minimum-jerk cartesian controller for humanoid robots, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Taipei, Taiwan, October 18-22, 2010.

  • This work reports on the Gaze controller:

Roncone A., Pattacini U., Metta G. and Natale L., A Cartesian 6-DoF Gaze Controller for Humanoid Robots, Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems, Ann Arbor, USA (MI), June 18-22, 2016.

  • This paper describes the Gaze stabilization:

Roncone, A. , Pattacini, U. , Metta, G. and Natale, L., Gaze Stabilization for Humanoid Robots: a Comprehensive Framework, IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, Madrid, Spain, November 18-20, 2014.

  • This work presents the learning of eye-hand coordination:

Fanello S.R., Pattacini U., Gori I., Tikhanoff V., Randazzo M., Roncone A., Odone F. & Metta G. 3D Stereo Estimation and Fully Automated Learning of Eye-Hand Coordination in Humanoid Robots, IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, Madrid, Spain, November 18-20, 2014.


Object recognition using conv-nets

Pasquale, G., Ciliberto, C., Rosasco, L., and Natale, L., Object Identification from Few Examples by Improving the Invariance of a Deep Convolutional Neural Network, in Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Daejeon, Korea, 2016.

motionCUT: detecting independent motion

Ciliberto, C., Pattacini, U., Natale, L., Nori, F., Metta, G., Reexamining Lucas-Kanade Method for Real-Time Independent Motion Detection: Application to the iCub Humanoid Robot, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Francisco, CA, USA, September 25-30, 2011.

Exploring affordances and tool use

Mar, T., Tikhanoff, V., Metta, G., and Natale, L., Self-supervised learning of grasp dependent tool affordances on the iCub Humanoid robot, in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Seattle, Washington, 2015

Tikhanoff, V., Pattacini, U., Natale, L., Metta, G., Exploring affordances and tool use with the iCub, IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, Atlanta, GA, USA, October 15-17, 2013.

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